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  • E-BUYERS SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO PURPOSES 069888666.md E-BUYERS SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO PURPOSES 069888666.md e-buyers segmentation according to purposes 069888666.md

    E-BUYERS SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO PURPOSES 069888666.md E-BUYERS SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO PURPOS
    E-BUYERS SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO PURPOSES
     
    MIHAIL EFIMOV, Dr., ASEM
    This article contains an analysis of e-buyers segmentation according to the purposes of on-line purchasing. The method of e-buyers segmentation at a trading enterprise for improving the economic efficiency has been proposed based on research.  
     
    Key words: economic efficiency, segmentation, segmentation method, e-commerce, trading enterprise, e-consumer, marketing complex.
     
    Consumers are going on-line. The volume of e-commerce in Russia has grown to 10 billion dollars and it will triple in 5 years [8].
    Nowadays, the analysis of website traffic and visitor performance can be evaluated and studied in a comprehensive manner, for instance:  Yandexmetrika Figure 1and/or Google analytics (Figure 2).

    Figure 1. E-consumers Performance. Site Track Chart
    Source: adapted by the author based on Yandexmetrika https://metrika.yandex.ru/list/ (visited on 28/03/14)

    Figure 2. E-consumers Performance
    Source: adapted by the author based on Google analytics https://www.google.com/analytics/web/?authuser (Visited on 28/03/14)
    However, use of these data is not always sufficient for obtaining economic efficiency. A correct interpretation, a comprehensive approach to all indicators is required, moreover, it is necessary to take into consideration the indicators which are not included in any functional i.e. segmentation of e-consumers according to the purchase purpose.
    According to the definition given by Gerasimenko “economic efficiency of trading enterprise means effectiveness of use of all available resources (both in the short and long term) reduced to cost unit. Generally the formula determining the economic efficiency looks like:
     
    EE = E / C  (1)                                                                      (1)
     
    where
    EE – economic efficiency;
    E - result (effect);
    C – costs”. [2]
    We consider e-buyer to be an individual or legal entity that pays in cash and purchases goods and/or services online.
    According to Philip Kotler, market segmentation means market division into certain buyers’ groups which need certain goods and/or marketing complexes. Figure 3 [6].
     

    Figure 3. Target Marketing Measures
    Source: based on Kotler, Ph. Marketing: An Introduction. Chapter 7. Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning for Competitive Advantage http://gtmarket.ru/laboratory/basis/5091/5098(visited on 19/03/14)
    The segmentation method consists in determining the buyers’ groups in the market which have similar purchasing needs and characteristics. The advantages of using the segmentation approach are as follows: by identifying and determining such e-buyers’ groups the trading enterprise acquires more opportunities for developing the product or service meeting the needs of these groups. The decisions on pricing and distribution system are also made taking into consideration the interests of a concrete e-buyers’ segment [4].
    The efficiency of analytical work on segmentation depends on the extent, on which the obtained segments can be measured, are accessible, reputable, suitable for performing task-specific actions in these segments.  
    Then the trading enterprise should select one or more of the most profitable market segments. However, it should decide at first what number of segments should be covered. The trading enterprise can ignore the difference in segments (non-differentiated marketing), develop different market proposals for different segments (differentiated marketing) or focus its efforts on one or more segments (concentrated marketing) Figure 4.
     
    Figure 4. Three Options of Market Coverage Strategy
    Source: based on Kotler, Ph. Marketing: An Introduction. Chapter 7. Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning for Competitive Advantage http://gtmarket.ru/laboratory/basis/5091/5098(visited on 19/03/14)
     
    The market segments can be evaluated from the point of view of their attractiveness and from the point of view of business strengths which the trading enterprise should have in order to succeed in a concrete segment. 
    The choice of concrete market determines the circle of competitors of trading enterprise and possibilities of its positioning. After studying the competitors’ positions, the trading enterprise makes a decision whether to take the place close to the position of one of competitors or to try to fill a gap revealed in the market. If the trading enterprise takes the position near to one of competitors, it should differentiate its offer due to goods, price and qualitative distinctions. The decision on concrete positioning allows the company to commence to the following step i.e. to detailed planning of marketing complex [6].
    Markets consist of e-buyers, however they differ according to various parameters. There may be different needs, resources, geographical position, buying attitude and habits. Any of these variables can be used as a basis for market segmentation [6]. There is no uniform method of market segmentation.   
    The market operator should try segmentation options based on different variable parameters, one or more, when trying to find the most useful approach to market structure consideration [6]. Therefore, we find it opportune to consider the e-buyers segmentation according to the purposes.  
    Nowadays, trading enterprises are more often oriented to target marketing as any trading enterprise is interested in maximization of its goods sale. Why someone should diffuse efforts, when it is possible to bring the product exactly to a potential buyer who is the most interested in acquiring this product, while this product will be maximally close to the product of buyer’s dreams or goods of first priority. Target marketing requires three major measures:     
    1.      Market segmentation – division of market into three concrete groups of buyers, each of which may require certain goods or marketing complexes. The trading enterprise determines different ways of market segmentation, draws up profiles of obtained segments and evaluates the force of attraction of each of them.
    2.      Selecting the target market segments – evaluation and selection of one or more market segments for product introduction in the market.  
    3.      Commodity positioning – ensuring the competitive position of product in the market and developing a detailed marketing complex [5].
    Thus, we have proposed the following hypothesis: e-buyers can be divided according to three purchase purposes:
    1.      Those who have recourse to Internet as this product is difficult to be found in reality or they find the product and then search for a cheaper price online.
    2.      Those who find it more convenient to place an order without leaving their home or office, for example when it is raining or they have work to do.
    3.      Those whose lifestyle or work is connected with the trading enterprise operation as an effective operation tool.
    When focusing attention on each segment and proposing a proper marketing complex, it is possible to achieve the economic efficiency.  
    Methodology used: comparison, abstraction, generalization, analogy, analysis, expert evaluation, survey, interview, synthesis and other general scientific and economic methods.
    All analyses herein and proposed methods are a result of personal research based on:
    ·         Purchases made;
    ·         Analysis of demand and e-buyers’ interview;
    ·         Studying the expert evaluations of other online sources.  
    The aims of this articles are to determine the segments, develop a marketing complex and check the improvement of economic efficiency due to e-buyers’ segmentation according to the purchase purposes.   
    To achieve these aims the following tasks are set:
    1.              To analyze the e-buyers’ visits of targeted Internet resources;
    2.             To analyze the behavior and results of phone interview of e-buyers;  
    3.             To develop a marketing complex and check the improvement of economic efficiency.  
                The issue of segmentation has been studied in works by Philip Kotler. The issue of analysis and summary report of data matrix are presented on: https://www.google.com/analytics/ and https://metrika.yandex.ru. The authors analyze target visiting and such characteristics as targeted call, however they do not pay sufficient attention to achievement of economic efficiency according to purposes of e-consumers.   
    The author sees the originality of obtained results in the fact that it is possible to achieve economic efficiency due to e-buyers segmentation according to the purchase purpose and proposal of marketing complex for the segment.  
    In order to solve the first problem consisting of review of Internet resources visitors, it has been suggested to study the analysis and summary report of data matrix given on https://www.google.com/analyticsFigure 5and https://metrika.yandex.ru Figure 6

    Figure 5. Performance Map
    Source: adapted by the author based on Google analytics https://www.google.com/analytics/web/?authuser (Visited on 28/03/14)

    Figure 6. Attendance Report
    Source: adapted by the author based on Yandexmetrika https://metrika.yandex.ru/list/ (visited on 28/03/14).
     
    A great possibility for analysis is provided by WebVisor on https://metrika.yandex.ru, it allows viewing all actions of website visitor. 
    At the same time, it is possible to see how the potential e-buyers find the goods they are interested in via search systems. We have used the site-auditor 2.48 program for analysis Figure 7. While Etxt seo service helps learning the result in the search engine: Figure 8.

    Figure 7.  Visible Site
    Source: adapted by the author based on site-auditor 2.48


    Figure 8. Seo-analysis Result
    Source: adapted by the author based on Etxt seo service
     
    In order to fulfill the second task consisting of analysis of e-buyers behavior and telephone survey, the calling e-buyers have been asked the following questions:
    ·         What range of goods are you interested in?
    ·         Where did you get the number?
    ·         Are you satisfied with price, delivery, due dates?  
    The survey of experts of other Internet resources has been also carried out.
    When summarizing the received answers, the range of popular and new goods has achieved the starting positions. Three segments of e-buyers have been distinguished more precisely:  
    1.      Those who have recourse to Internet as this product is difficult to be found in reality or they find the product and then search for a cheaper price online.
    2.      Those who find it more convenient to place an order without leaving their home or office, for example when it is raining or they have work to do (lack of time or possibility, conveniences) . In this case they see a number of advantages:
    a.       They do not need to go anywhere (it is vital for disabled people, mothers with babies and for the sick).
    b.      The do not need wasting time for purchase.
    c.       You can see all range of goods and its availability in a convenient way.
    3.      Those whose lifestyle or work is connected with the trading enterprise operation as an effective operation tool. E-buyers are ready to cooperate on actual basis as well.
    In order to fulfill the third task consisting of development of marketing complex and checking the improvement of economic efficiency, three options of marketing complex have been developed.
    The implementation was carried out on http://evm-angro.md in 2014. The key components of marketing complexes have been distinguished for this company. They are as follows:
    1.      High prices, cooperation with a maximum number of suppliers, easy orientation in a wide range of goods, smooth-running supply and delivery. In case when the extra charge cannot be increased, the delivery cost may be agreed upon. Monitoring the e-buyers search for rare goods. Specialist in goods range.
    2.      High prices, smooth-running delivery. Seo-optimization.
    3.      Low prices, cooperation with foreign suppliers, smooth-running delivery. Seo-optimization. Qualified staff.
    According to expert statistics (the name is not disclosed for the confidentiality purposes), the profit of Moscow trading enterprise amounted to 10 877 062 rubles from November 01, 2013, to the end of March 2014, of which the store profit amounted to 2 209 648 rubles. It constitutes about 20%, however the store staff also takes orders from the website so the profit from store buyers is actually smaller and rates from 5 to 10%, it means that e-buyers have provided 90-95% of trading enterprise profit.

    Figure 9. Profit Statistics
    Source: based on expert data
     
    According to expert statistics (the name is not disclosed for the confidentiality purposes), the additional profit of Chisinau trading enterprise amounted to 6700 lei from February 01, 2014, to the end of March 2014. Thus, it gives evidence of economic efficiency improvement.
    The amount of investment into e-commerce should be correlated with the costs for maintenance of Internet resource, additional equipment, software, specialists in maintenance and direct activity of promotion and advertising actions. 
     
    Month Unique visitors Numbers of visits Pages Top Volume
    January 2014 2,114 7,692 79,651 136,908 3.02 GB
    February 2014 3,085 8,467 616,721 712,782 56.40 GB
    March 2014 5,164 12,127 556,671 729,136 103.59 GB
    April 2014 0 0 0 0 0
    Figure 10. Monthly Visit Track Record
    Sources: adapted by the author based on http://host.md
    Thus it is possible to make a conclusion that as a result of implemented methods there has been increased:  
    1.      Relative profit. For instance, this item http://for.md/tag/mercishor/ gains a profit of several thousand lei per year.
    2.      Attendance and number of target calls (Ошибка! Неизвестный аргумент ключа.).
     
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
     
    1.                  Google analytics https://www.google.com/analytics/web/?authuser (Visited on 28/03/14).
    2.                  Gerasimenko, O. N. Economic Efficiency of Company Marketing.  PhD thesis in Economic Sciences. Saint Petersburg, 2002. http://www.dissercat.com/content/ekonomicheskaya-effektivnost-marketingovoi-deyatelnosti-predpriyatiya (visited on 12.03.2013).
    3.                  Kaufman, Josh. The Personal MBA: Master the Art of Business. Translated from English by Anna Loginova and Pavel Mironov. 2nd edition. М. Mann, Ivanov and Feber, 2013. 464 p.
    4.                  Market segmentation http://www.grandars.ru/student/marketing/segmentaciya-rynka.html (visited on 28/03/14).
    5.             Faleitor, A. Market Segmentation
    http://www.marketing.spb.ru/read/article/a18.htm (visited on 28/03/14).
    6.                  Kotler, Ph. Marketing: An Introduction. Chapter 7. Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning for Competitive Advantage http://gtmarket.ru/laboratory/basis/5091/5098(visited on 19/03/14).
    7.                  Yandexmetrika https://metrika.yandex.ru/list/ (visited on 28/03/14).
    8.                  Year’s Results. Internet. Trading. Consumer 16:37 December 30, 2013 http://rbctv.rbc.ru/archive/levchenko/562949990161632.shtml (28/03/14).

     

    Автор: EVM- Angro от 26.07.2014
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